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Republican Forest Selection and Seed Center

Journal of Forestry and hunting

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  • In recent years, the forestry industry, the share of forest cultures, created by breeding, planting, growing. In 2002 it was 12.1 percent, and by 2015 experts expect to achieve 50% of the maximum, which, according to scientists, it is possible to afford.

    What is the use of selection of improved material for the reproduction of the forest? Experts from science saying that the productivity of such plantations to the age of maturity will be 10-15% higher. This means that each hectare can be obtained separately, depending on the breed, from 15 to 30 m3 of timber. Therefore, in order to create an elite landing material from which it is possible to grow supernacerrone, in the Republic founded 1757 hectares of seed orchards.

    although forest plantation has about half of the forestry breeding material for planting forests today are used by almost all farms - elite seeds are redistributed between the SFE. It is understandable, highly productive plantations should be in all regions of the Republic. But when this high productivity even see! But what it is possible to estimate today, it's the effectiveness and condition of forest seed plantations. So what is today the forest seed base in terms of quality?

    First of all, allow yourself a small historic educational program.

    the Work on establishment of seed orchards in the second half of the last century more or less actively conducted in all the Union republics. In Belarus, the first forest plantation of Norway spruce was laid in 1968 in Baranavichy and Glubokoye SFE. Initially, they were formed on the basis of physical indicators of the trees in the plantings stood a plus-trees – 10-20% different from the main body by the taxation characteristics. In the next step with them selected cuttings were grafted, and was laid forest plantation of the first generation. These details in the description only to show that the first forest plantation was created only by morphological and external characteristics. Geneticists have joined this project later, when the establishment of plantations is already the second generation. On January 1, 2012 LSP of the first generation in Belarus was already 1161 ha of second generation – 596 hectares.

    Today, the plantation lay on the basis of the possibilities where that can grow (e.g. plantations of spruce in the Gomel region there, but here the large area of plantation oak), according to the needs (of course conifers predominate, because they are the biggest economic demand, so almost 60% of the plantations – pine, 20% spruce) and in accordance with the plan determined by the Program. The latter is compiled for a decade and a half, but in the process of being corrected. The current is designed for 2001-2015. Today, the Institute of forest of NAS of Belarus is developing a new plan for the establishment of seed orchards – 2016-2030 this work is based on the fact that the first plantations will be derived from traffic and they need to replace to gather cones and seeds in sufficient quantities.

    In General, for the development of forest seed base in our Republic is responsible to the national forest seed selection and production center. Here is an inventory of plus trees, summary sheets for forest plantation and plus stands, genetic reserves. The Republican certification Commission has the right to attend any of the objects of forest seed base. Its solution conducts their certification or exclusion from the selection of plus plantations... At the same time Breeding center has provided the forestry and methodological assistance in carrying out all works, including the laying of the plantations.

    By the way, forest plantation is today not only in the system of the Ministry of forestry. However, there are not a lot: 7 ha LSP of the first order and 20 ha of second order. Although reporting to the national forest breeding center is not getting the seeds to check with these plantations send regularly. "So some work is conducted there", – commented the head of Department of forest seed and reforestation RLSC Tatiana Hanover. But still in the Center have only a subordinated organizations.

    So what is the quality of the plantations and in what measure its effectiveness? As told the head of Department of forestry of Ministry of forestry Valentin Shatravko, in 2002, the Institute of forest of NAS of Belarus conducted selection assessment of all forest seed plantations, which showed that they are not grafted trees. On separate sites until 15%. Such trees must be removed and this is quite a large amount of work for forest.

    Genetic evaluation allows you to see what our plantations second generation: what is their genetic value, i.e. the ability to maintain what we're breeding way out. The results of this evaluation is ambiguous: the genetic value of the plantations was higher than in natural stands, somewhere below. In General, according to Valentina, Shatravko, today we "have what we have as a good of the plantation, so not very". "Although scientists have only begun to undertake genetic assessment and the full picture yet, – Valentin Gennadievich – in addition, you need to remember that not all the plantation is estimated, and only the seeds taken from some of the trees."

    But in the question of the effectiveness of plantations discrepancies are almost there. The main criterion is the volume of seed procurement of raw materials. Large volumes of procurement good plantation. And all works here boil down to, ultimately, get the maximum amount of cones. In acknowledgement of the importance of this issue is the fact that there is not only the counting of the harvested crop, but also anticipated. This is done in order to determine the volume of harvesting, processing, making plans. As the chief of the sector of reproduction of forests and forest reclamation of the Ministry of forestry Maria Gerasimenko at flowering trees within a certain timeframe engineer on reforestation determines the approximate number of cones. Techniques several, but the main – malopodvalna, in which, as the name implies, productivity is measured in points. From 0 to 5. 0 – low, 5 – high.

    based on this and calculated the future number of seeds. The accuracy of the forecast, Maria V. connects with the integrity of the calculations. This work also coordinates and verifies the Selection center. The average fruiting at ate this year – 1. Pine is 1.5, often 2. This moderate yield.

    Higher productivity on the plantations, in comparison with conventional plants? According to Maria Gerasimenko – not necessarily. But here is a bump bigger its detection better yield of seeds – more. And seeds themselves more. Besides, the bumps on the plantations easier to collect – they are located below and access best. If in conventional plantations the yield of seeds of pine by an average of 1% (with 1 ton of cones – 10 kg of seeds), and eat – on average 2-2,5%, plantations of these indicators of pine reach 1.5%, and for spruce – closer to 3%.

    the Age of plantation is not a long – 30-35 years. This is the optimal time when she can give the harvest. But a large value for "longevity" has its condition and the activities that it carried out.

    the

    STRENGTHS AND weaknesses of OUR

    in what condition today our plantations from the point of view of timeliness of care?

    According to the chief of the division of forest seed and reforestation RLSC Tatiana Hanover, almost all the plantations of the first generation leave much to be desired. There are only a few forest enterprises, which deserve mention. From farms that have good plantations, and the first and second generation, it allocates Cherikov forestry, Baranovichi, Krupski, Socinski and Grodno.

    the Reason for the neglect of the plantations of the first generation lack the time, clear recommendations for holding on to them all the necessary measures. And if you do not have a clear algorithm of actions, so it was delayed thinning, which increase the illuminance, and hence fruiting; not carried out the formation of the crown there is no access to big guns....

    Even during the laying of the plantations today have to be guided by the instructions developed in 80-ies of the last century. Definitely need a document – specific and complete, experts say. Today, practical advice prepared in the depths of the forest Institute. This document should become a kind of step by step instructions with clear guidance: scheme of the mixing, the allocation of seats, location of each site, the time of fertilizer application, carrying out of treatments...

    But time was lost. "Today, some guidance documents that could be guided by forestry experts, is already there, and their execution and we will check", – says Tatiana Hanover. At the same time, she acknowledges that time they can apply for the most part only for the plantations of the second generation.

    But, according to Tatyana Honowitz, good plantation of the second generation have almost all the forest enterprises.

    the

    PERSONNEL ISSUE

    as far As the level of training of our engineering staff meets the demands that are now facing the service?

    In the selection work, according to Tatyana Hanover as anywhere you need experience and continuity, as a young professional needs a couple of years to work with a senior colleague, to get involved in this case. Meanwhile, on our farms, I guess there are just a dozen professionals who work ten-twenty years. This is very small.

    Today, the seed business is a diocese of the engineer on reforestation, and a lot depends on him – how were created in principle by the system. Meanwhile, it has been suggested that in households where there is representation of all the objects constant forest-seed base – and genetic reserves, plus trees and plantings, and plantations of first and second order, and plantations of different species, we need to introduce the position of engineer seed grower. Actually, this is not news to the industry. More recently, these professionals worked in Borisovska skilled, experienced Kobrin, Kalinkovichi, Glubokoe experienced, Baranovichi, Polotsk forestry. And in Glubokoe experimental forestry at the time was even the chief Forester on forest seed business. In fairness, we note that the staffing difficulties in this direction were not left without attention. At the Board meeting of the Ministry of forestry, when summed up planting season 2011, has been tasked to consider the issue of strengthening of personnel specialists and petanceska seed farms.

    But, as noted by the head of the sector of reproduction of forests and forest reclamation of the Ministry of forestry Maria Gerasimenko, chief technologist in the economy remains the chief Forester. And its approaches to plantation farming depends on the state of the objects. "Especially if the plantation is young and obvious income from it not immediately seen, emphasizes Maria Gerasimenko. And attachments it requires a large – and strict requirements on full-scale design and development activities of the crown, and fertilizer... in addition, for all work necessary and special equipment – lifts, viatores..." To resolve the issue of technical equipment, the workshop in 2011 was entrusted to the forestry with LSP area more than 25 ha to 1 may 2012 to acquire the necessary equipment: at least 1 vistorta or equivalent, disk harrows for soil care, and in the presence of fruit-bearing plantations area of over 30 hectares to purchase the lift.

    the

    FEEL the DIFFERENCE

    How to explain a man far removed from forestry, biology, breeding that this huge and serious work makes sense? Moreover, the ultimate goal of all the manipulations with the release of plus plantations, creation of plantations, caring for them, anxious breath on valuable seeds to obtain high-quality forest plantations. Valentin Shatravko argues that practices will be able to evaluate this planting only when it comes out. The fact that by the age of felling productivity will increase by 15-20%, still a theory. Which, however, gradually beginning to be seen in practice. Already in the establishment phase of planting material: the differences in energy growth are already visible here. To seven years of age "selection" of culture is obviously better than their "peers", though not by 15-20%. Problem with translations: they always reach the standard of height, they do not need to leave for rearing.

    But the look is not the culture, and already stands created from selection of planting material? Are they better than those that grow from regular seeds? Where as in Baranovichi, where more than 40 years ago established the first plantation, to look for the answer?

    the Engineer of forest cultures in Baranovichi forestry Alla Gennadievna of Kuzmenok working on the farm since 1982, and she, like anyone else, can appreciate all the work and its results. According to Alla Gennadievna, not only in forestry but also in the Republic, plantations 1969-71 years bookmarks, long fruited. "First harvest is got in 1994 – just before the first wave of drying of spruce forests, – says the engineer of forest cultures. We even thought that it is this stress pushed planting to fruiting. At that time was not developed clear methods of forming the high plantation, planting scheme 5 × 5 to collect the harvest method of thinning had removed a number. But in the subsequent to bear fruit plantation has become each period – 1994, 98. Yield is now an average of 2-3 points. Checks show that the lump is not damaged and a small balnot kompensiruet quality cones yield seeds from which is 2.5%. Themselves seeds 1 class."

    Today in Baranovichi forestry a large amount of seed orchards of the first generation of 72 hectares, according to experts, the Breeding center they are all in good condition. In forestry tell us that over time, when LSP II generation will enter into force, need in plantations of the first generation will not. "Especially because they require more processing and, consequently, costs." In addition, according to the engineer in forest cultures of forestry, "the second generation of pines already almost overrides the first generation". God Kuzmenok says that pine is more "precocious": it's a plantation, incorporated in 1994-95 has already entered the stage of abundant fruiting. With them on the farm for harvest 2 tons of cones, while the tree of the same laying period of mass harvest is not allowed. By the way, evidence of the effectiveness of this direction in forestry can serve the fact that only in this year, the farm sold seeds with improved hereditary qualities for Br33 million For carrying out timely and quality care for the plantations in forestry there are appropriate technical equipment: garden harrow, brush cutter, sprayer, planning to buy a lift. Work on forest seed plantations requires a lot of time and responsibility, confirms the engineer in forest cultures Baranovichi forestry. Alla Gennadievna convinced that this requires and a separate specialist. "Back in the mid 80-ies in our economy was an engineer-seed growers and even a master seed". And today, when the area of plantations increased, and the amount of work on them – the responsible specialist is the key to their successful development."

    With all the complexities of forest seed production, the experts are unanimous in their assessment of the situation in this field: it is developing very effectively. The result of this more rigorous approach, or awareness of the importance and prospects?.. Whatever it was, but the fact remains: colleagues from the former Soviet republics, visiting our facilities seed sources, are always surprised at their condition and the fact that this trend is not lost, but continues to evolve. And the harvest from the plantations II generation – not just the top seeds. It's already elite. Which are today the forests of the future.

    Thursday, 28 June 2012 Written by Ольга ШАРАФАНОВИЧ

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